open import Cat.Functor.FullSubcategory
open import Cat.Diagram.Equaliser
open import Cat.Diagram.Initial
open import Cat.Diagram.Pushout
open import Cat.Instances.Comma
open import Cat.Instances.Slice
open import Cat.Diagram.Image
open import Cat.Prelude

import Cat.Reasoning

module Cat.Diagram.Equaliser.RegularMono {o } (C : Precategory o ) where

Regular monomorphisms🔗

A regular monomorphism is a morphism that behaves like an embedding, i.e. it is an isomorphism onto its image. Since images of arbitrary morphisms do not exist in every category, we must find a definition which implies this property but only speaks diagramatically about objects directly involved in the definition.

The definition is as follows: A regular monomorphism f:abf : a \mono b is an equaliser of some pair of arrows g,h:bcg, h : b \to c.

record is-regular-mono (f : Hom a b) : Type (o  ) where
    {c}       : Ob
    arr₁ arr₂ : Hom b c
    has-is-eq : is-equaliser C arr₁ arr₂ f

  open is-equaliser has-is-eq public

From the definition we can directly conclude that regular monomorphisms are in fact monomorphisms:

  is-regular-mono→is-mono : is-monic f
  is-regular-mono→is-mono = is-equaliser→is-monic C _ has-is-eq

open is-regular-mono using (is-regular-mono→is-mono) public

Effective epimorphisms🔗

Proving that a map ff is a regular monomorphism involves finding two maps which it equalises, but if C\ca{C} is a category with pushouts, there is often a canonical choice: The cokernel pair of ff, that is, the pushout of ff along with itself. Morphisms which a) have a cokernel pair and b) equalise their cokernel pair are called effective monomorphisms.

record is-effective-mono (f : Hom a b) : Type (o  ) where
    {cokernel}       : Ob
    i₁ i₂            : Hom b cokernel
    is-cokernel-pair : is-pushout C f i₁ f i₂
    has-is-equaliser : is-equaliser C i₁ i₂ f

Every effective monomorphism is a regular monomorphism, since it equalises the inclusions of its cokernel pair.

  is-effective-mono→is-regular-mono : is-regular-mono f
  is-effective-mono→is-regular-mono = rm where
    open is-regular-mono
    rm : is-regular-mono f
    rm .c = _
    rm .arr₁ = _
    rm .arr₂ = _
    rm .has-is-eq = has-is-equaliser

If ff has a cokernel pair, and it is a regular monomorphism, then it is also effective — it is the equaliser of its cokernel pair.

  :  {a b} {f : Hom a b}
   Pushout C f f
   is-regular-mono f
   is-effective-mono f
is-regular-mono→is-effective-mono {f = f} cokern reg = eff where
  module f⊔f = Pushout cokern
  module reg = is-regular-mono reg

Let f:abf : a \mono b be the equaliser of arr1,arr2:bc\id{arr_1}, \id{arr_2} : b \to c. By the universal property of the cokernel pair of ff, we have a map ϕ:BABC\phi : B \sqcup_A B \to C such that ϕi1=arr1\phi \circ i_1 = \id{arr_1} and ϕi2=arr2\phi \circ i_2 = \id{arr_2}.

  phi : Hom f⊔f.coapex reg.c
  phi = f⊔f.colimiting reg.equal

  open is-effective-mono
  eff : is-effective-mono f
  eff .cokernel = f⊔f.coapex
  eff .i₁ = f⊔f.i₁
  eff .i₂ = f⊔f.i₂
  eff .is-cokernel-pair = f⊔f.has-is-po
  eff .has-is-equaliser = eq where

To show that ff also has the universal property of the equaliser of i1,i2i_1, i_2, suppose that e:Ebe\prime : E \to b also equalises the injections. Then we can calulate:

arr1e=(ϕi1)e=(ϕi2)e=arr2e \id{arr_1}e\prime = (\phi i_1)e\prime = (\phi i_2)e\prime = \id{arr_2}e\prime

So ee\prime equalises the same arrows that ff does, hence there is a universal map EaE \to a which commutes with “everything in sight”:

    open is-equaliser
    eq : is-equaliser _ _ _ _
    eq .equal     = f⊔f.square
    eq .limiting {F = F} {e′ = e′} p = reg.limiting p′ where
      p′ : reg.arr₁  e′  reg.arr₂  e′
      p′ =
        reg.arr₁  e′       ≡˘⟨ ap (_∘ e′) f⊔f.i₁∘colimiting ≡˘
        (phi  f⊔f.i₁)  e′ ≡⟨ extendr p 
        (phi  f⊔f.i₂)  e′ ≡⟨ ap (_∘ e′) f⊔f.i₂∘colimiting 
        reg.arr₂  e′       
    eq .universal = reg.universal
    eq .unique = reg.unique

If f:ABf : A \to B has a canonical choice of pushout along itself, then it suffices to check that it equalises those injections to show it is an effective mono.

  :  {a b} {f : Hom a b}
   (P : Pushout C f f)
   is-equaliser C (P .Pushout.i₁) (P .Pushout.i₂) f
   is-effective-mono f
equalises-cokernel-pair→is-effective-mono P eq = em where
  open is-effective-mono
  em : is-effective-mono _
  em .cokernel = _
  em .i₁ = _
  em .i₂ = _
  em .is-cokernel-pair = P .Pushout.has-is-po
  em .has-is-equaliser = eq

Images of regular monos🔗

Let f:ABf : A \mono B be an effective mono, or, in a category with pushouts, a regular mono. We show that ff admits an image relative to the class of regular monomorphisms. The construction of the image is as follows: We let imf=A\im f = A and factor ff as

AidAfB A \xto{\id{id}} A \xmono{f} B

This factorisation is very straightforwardly shown to be universal, as the code below demonstrates.

  :  {a b} {f : Hom a b}
   is-effective-mono f
   M-image C (is-regular-mono , is-regular-mono→is-mono) f
is-effective-mono→image {f = f} eff = im where
  module eff = is-effective-mono eff

  itself : ↓Obj _ _
  itself .x = tt
  itself .y = cut f ,→is-regular-mono
  itself .map = record { map = id ; commutes = idr _ }

  im : Initial _
  im .bot = itself
  im .has⊥ other = contr hom unique where
    hom : ↓Hom _ _ itself other
    hom .α = tt
    hom .β = other .map
    hom .sq = /-Hom-path refl

    unique :  x  hom  x
    unique x = ↓Hom-path _ _ refl
      (/-Hom-path (intror refl  ap map (x .sq)  elimr refl))

Hence the characterisation of regular monomorphisms given in the introductory paragraph: In a category with pushouts, every regular monomorphism “is an isomorphism” onto its image. In reality, it gives its own image!